Wednesday, April 30, 2014

C.K. Marshall

At Gordon Kwok’s site, Association to commemorate the Chinese serving in the American Civil War, are three parts devoted to the life and times of Charles K. Marshall.

Charles K. Marshall 1, researched by Oey and Kwok
Charles K. Marshall 2, researched by Hale
Charles K. Marshall 3, Kate in the heathen land

Marshall was known by many names. Kwok listed the following:

aka Dsau Sier Whoa
aka Dzau Tsz-zeh
aka Cao Zishi
aka Marshall-Tsao
aka Dzau Tse Zeh
aka Tsao Tsz-zeh or Tsao Tz-zeh

Marshall was born in China around 1847. How Marshall got his name was explained in W. B. Nance’s book, Soochow University (1956).
...The first Methodist day school in Soochow was started in 1871 by Tsao Tz-zeh, a young man recently returned from ten years in the U.S.A. A homeless orphan, eleven years old, he had been befriended by the J.W. Lambuths of the Methodists mission. In 1859 Mrs. Lambuth’s failing health necessitated a furlough, and the orphan boy was so promising that she brought him along. Wherever he went Tsao made friends by his eagerness to learn, his readiness for any task, and his gratitude for help received. He was baptized by a bishop, and helped by Rev. C.K. Marshall of Mississippi, whose name he adopted. Thenceforth, as long as he lived, Tsao was known among his American friends, even in China, as Charley Marshall. Her health restored, Mrs. Lambuth returned to Shanghai, leaving Charley to the care of Dr. D.C. Kelley, who had gone to China with the Lambuths in 1854 but had had to retire in less than two years because of the failure of his wife’s health….
A passenger list, at, lists Mrs. Lambuth with her son and daughter, Mr. Yao, a servant, and two Chinese boys: Chas or Chan [illegible] Sierwho, age 13, and Nebaw, age 11. From Shanghai they sailed on the clipper ship N.B. Palmer and arrived in New York City on January 16, 1860. Below is a detail of the passenger list.

The 1860 U.S. Federal Census, enumerated August 11, recorded the Kelley household.

Home: District 22, Wilson, Tennessee
Post Office: Lebanon
Household Members:
Name / Age
John Kelley, 58
Margaret L Kelley, 54
David C Kelley, 26
Minerva A Kelley, 24
Davidella Kelley, 02
Fanny R Willis, 17
Elenora Willis, 13
Mary K Willis, 10
Lincoln Chan, 13
Nebow Isa, 11

On lines 39 and 40 are two Chinese boys Lincoln Chan and Nebow Isa, the same boys on the passenger list.

Later, Lincoln Chan’s name changed to Charles K. Marshall. A profile of Charles Kimball Marshall (1811–1891) was published in The Methodist Review Quarterly, April 1891.

The following list of periodicals and books mention Marshall.


The Schoharie Union
(New York)
April 14, 1871
A Chinese Wedding
Same text found in The Sabbath Reporter except for first paragraph: A gentleman in China writes an interesting account of the marriage of Mr. Charles K. Marshall. This young gentleman is a native Chinaman, but was brought to this country in his childhood.

The Nunda News
(New York)
April 15, 1871
A Chinese Wedding
Same text found in The Sabbath Reporter except for first paragraph: A gentleman in China writes an interesting account of the marriage of Mr. Charles K. Marshall. This young gentleman is a native Chinaman, but was brought to this country in his childhood.

The Madison County Times
(Chittenango, New York)
April 22, 1871
A Chinese Wedding
Same text found in The Sabbath Reporter except for first paragraph: A gentleman in China writes an interesting account of the marriage of Mr. Charles K. Marshall. This young gentleman is a native Chinaman, but was brought to this country in his childhood.

The Sabbath Recorder
(New York, New York)
May 18, 1871
A Chinese Wedding

A gentleman in China writes an interesting account of the marriage of Charles K. Marshall. This young gentleman is a native Chinaman, and was brought to New York in his boyhood, and was a member of the “Church of Strangers” in New York city. He returned to China two years ago, is preaching and teaching in Soo-chow, and is supported by the Sunday School of Dr. Deems’ church. The following is an extract from the letter:

I left home on the 8th, about ten o’clock A.M., in company with Charles and his bride. We are not, however, on the same boat. We have been two days together, but I have not yet seen her face, it being Chinese custom for the bride to keep herself very close and concealed from view. Charles was married on the 29th of November, in Shanghai, to a Christian young lady of the Episcopal church. They were married in the Episcopal church about candle light The church was crowded to overflowing. The ladies were dressed in the richest attire, beautifully embroidered. Their head-dresses were filled with jewels, gold and silver ornaments, and small, tinkling bells hung around in great profusion.

The bride was brought into the church in a handsome sedan chair, covered with a red cloth, and her face veiled with red, so that no one could see her. She was then led to the altar by two old ladies, the bridesmaids following, and the bridegroom meeting her at the altar. When we reached the native brother’s house, where a bountiful supply of good things was waiting us, the veil was lifted, and our friend Charles looked as though he was electrified, for he had never seen her face before. It is the custom of the Chinese, that the bride shall not be allowed to speak for three days, and all she eats has to be put into her mouth by the bridesmaids. She is not allowed to use her hands to do any thing for three days, and she is not allowed to sleep during that time, except what she can get by leaning her head upon the table or the side of the bed. But the worst and strangest part is to come next. From the first day of their marriage, day and night there is not a moment’s peace in the bride’s chamber. All invited guests are allowed to go in at any time day or night and make as much noise as they like, to prevent, either party from getting any rest. Neither bride nor groom can take any rest for they are at the mercy of those who are bidden to the feast.

The Medina Tribue
(New York)
June 22, 1871
A Chinese Wedding
Same text in The Sabbath Reporter

The Chinese Recorder and Missionary Journal
Volume XII, Number 4
July-August 1881
The native church in Shanghai has undertaken the support of their pastor this year, and so far has succeeded very well. The church at Nansiang unable to support their own pastor, Rev. Dzun Ts-dzeh (C.K. Marshall), who is paid $25 a month, supports the preacher at Kading at $7 per month.

The Chinese Recorder and Missionary Journal
Volume XIII, Number 2
March-April 1882
Soochow.—The Southern Methodist Mission has, within the last few years, acquired several lots of land and erected a number of mission buildings in this city. The first house was bought in 1870, and was the residence of Rev. Dzau Tz-zeh (C. R. [sic] Marshall) till 1879, when Mr. Marshall being appointed to Shanghai, the house was rented out....

The Marietta Journal
May 1, 1890
Rev. Dzau Tse Zeh.
An Address by a Chinaman.
He Tells How the Followers of Confucius Worship Idols.

Our city was visited last Friday by Rev. Dzau Tse Zeh, who has just arrived from China, and is en route as a delegate to the General Conference of the Southern Methodist church, which will convene in St. Louis this month. He was costumed in Chinese garb, of blue material, wooden sole shoes and wore a jaunty skull cap, while his cue [sic], a yard long, plaited, hung down his back. To facilitate matters of address, he has assumed the English name of Marshall. He speaks English fluently, clearly and correctly. About time the late war broke out, he was attending school at Lebanon, Tenn. His education was not completed, but he is sufficiently informed to teach, and, being converted to the Christian religion, when in his native country he is daily engaged educating the young Chinese and in advancing the Christian religion. While in the city, on Friday night, he attended the monthly meeting of the Juvenile Missionary Society at the Methodist church, and delivered a short address, by invitation of the president of the society, Mr. John A. Manget. Col. W.R. Power had just delivered an address, which he listened to attentively.

Dr. Dzau Tse Zeh, or Dr. Marshall, said it had been 21 years since he had been in this country and he was glad to see the children here engaged in the missionary work. He is well acquainted with the Methodist Missionaries in China, Young J. Allen, Anderson, Burke, and others, and is associated with them in their work. He sang a Chinese song, a Christian tune, translated into Chinese. He exhibited a Chinese lady’s shoe about four inches long, with a pointed toe. He said the Tartars, when they conquered China about 350 years ago, issued an edict forcing the Chinese women to cripple their feet by wearing these shoes in order to prevent them from enlisting and assisting Chinese warriors in battle, and it had been practiced so long that it is now a national custom. The female children at the age of three or four years had their toes broken and pressed underneath the feet, bandaged and kept that way, thus preventing growth and crippling them for life. He said it was pitiful to hear the cries of the children when undergoing this torture, who were often beaten by their mothers and made to walk on their toes, when the pain most excruciating. He said the Chinese had a proverb: “It takes one big stone jar filled with tears to have very small feet.” He said some of the Chinese ladies have such small feet, that they have two servants, one on each side to lean on, to aid them in walking of hobbling.

Only through teaching the children in day and Sunday schools, learning them to commit to memory religious songs, that their mothers and fathers could be reached by the gospel of Christ.

In speaking of the thirteen year old Emperor, he claims to be sixteen years old, he having a right to borrow additional years, owing to being styled the god of the sun of heaven and god of the earth.

In speaking of one of the prominent temples of the Chinese idols, he says it covers twenty-five acres of ground, and is crowded with idol worshippers, who visit it all night long, going and coming. These people carry candles and burn incense, filling the room with the peculiar smoke that these candles emit. Little children are taught to go there and bow down in worship of these idols, begging these false gods of wood and stone to bless papa and mamma, to give peace and prevent quarrels in the family. Grown men go there also—not seeing the veiled idols, they clap their hands and ring bells to attract the attention of the idols to let them know their presence.

Some of these idols are forty and fifty feet high, made in sitting posture. They are of all colors, red, blue, black, white, and yellow. Some have four eyes and four hands, with heads of dogs, lion, fox, squirrel or monkey. Some of the idols, especially the one of Bhuddha, have as many as one thousand hands, each hand representing some particular power or thing—one hand, for instance, symbolizing the moon, and another the sun, &c. Then there are the gods of wind, lightning and thunder. There are rows of idols, each idol marked with the age of a person, from 25 up to 100. These idols are of different make, representing the different stages of life. For instance, a man of 84 years could go there and find an idol, with this age marked on it, and it would represent in looks, &c., his age and true condition. He could look ahead at the next idol and see what he would be a year hence and so on. The idol of 80 years of age has eye lashes a foot long and beard of considerable length. As the idol appears, so you are in the counterfeit, mean or ugly, good or beautiful. In an upper temple are idols for females, where the females present shoes to these idols, sometimes as many as 60 pair of shoes are hanging on one idol, for the idol to wear when they go visiting at night as their superstitions suggest. The sacrifices to idols are live fish, live hogs and live roosters, and the livelier kicking they do, the greater pleased, the Chinese say, the idols are. While the great throng of people are going into the temple, bands of music are playing, and the priest is officiating before the idols. All carry candles, and if they fail to light and burn then as incense, they pitch them at the feet of the idols, and as much as three hundred dollars per night are made by the priest, who sell these candles back to the people two and three times.

Christianity is making great progress there, and some of the people are beginning to think and reason that the Christian’s God is the true God. The Mandarins are now encouraging the study of the mathematics of the Christians, also astronomy, civil engineering, telegraphing &c. These are evidence of advancing civilization.

Rev. Dr. C.K. Marshall was induced, by Rev. Mr. Ryburn, to remain until Sunday, and he preached at the Methodist Church in the morning to a large congregation. In the afternoon he addressed the Methodist and Presbyterian Sunday Schools. At night, by invitation of Rev. H.K. Walker, he filled the Presbyterian pulpit. The Church was filled by a large congregation to hear this distinguished Chinaman. His talks were very interesting and he made an impression by his statements of the progress of the Christian cause in China, that will give additional impetus to missionary work in this place. We believe many will give more cheerfully to send the gospel to the heathen than heretofore.

Dr. Marshall after attending the General Conference in St. Louis, will go to New York, where he will take a post-graduate course in medicine. To aid him in this, collections were taken up at the conclusion of his sermons at the Methodist and Presbyterian churches. After perfecting himself more thoroughly in the healing art, he will return to China and continue his missionary work among his people. It has been found by healing the bodily afflictions of the Chinese, they can be more easily reached in converting them to the Christian religion. A hospitable has been established, where the Chinamen are treated free, and Dr. Marshall is in charge. He left for Atlanta Monday morning.

St. Louis Republic
May 9, 1890
A Chinese Missionary.
Dzau Tse Zeh Speaks Interestingly of Church Work in China.

Mr. C.K. Marshall, otherwise Dzau Tse Zeh, of Soo Chow, China, is at the new Richelieu Hotel, Fourteenth and Washington avenue, in this city. He is a delegate to the Methodist conference from China. He was seen at the Richelieu last night by a Republic reporter.

“How is it, Mr. Marshall, that you, a Chinaman, bear an English name?” was the first query.

“Why,” said Mr. Marshall, in excellent and fluent English, ”my native name—Dzau Tse Zeh—is rather too much for the average American, as you will readily understand, and so, by permission of my kind benefactor, Dr. C.K. Marshall of Tennessee, who first brought me to this country and educated me, I have taken his name as my American cognomen. I first came to this country in 1859 to acquire an English education, and went to a college at Lebanon, Tenn. But then the war broke out and greatly interfered with my studies. I persevered, however, and did not return to China until 1868, when I had mastered the principal English branches and acquired fair speaking knowledge of your language. I was converted to the Christian religion in 1867, and the following year took orders in the Methodist Church and returned to my own country as a Christian missionary, where I have been laboring ever since. The past six years I have coupled the practice of medicine and surgery with the teaching of religion. On leaving St. Louis, I go at once to New York to study certain special branches of surgery and perfect myself for the better advantage of my people.”

“What do you estimate the population of China to be?”

“I place it at about 850,000,000 though of course that can be at best, but a shrewd guess, since our censuses are very inaccurate as compared with yours.”

“What per cent of this great multitude are Protestant Christians?”

“That is a very difficult question to answer, but I should say about one one-hundredth of 1 per cent, or 35,000. These are distributed all over the empire and are not confined to any particular district or locality, but may be found wherever the missionaries have been at work. I suppose at the present time the English have perhaps a few more missionaries in China than the Americans, though there is little advantage on either side. After the Americans and English come the French, then the Germans. The Catholics have a very large following in the empire, numbering, I think, about 1,000,000 souls, but it cannot be said that their people belong to the higher ranks, as do the other Christian converts.”

“Do the foreign missionaries have any considerable influence at the Chinese court?”

“That depends. If they are men who have been long in the country and have proven their worth, yes, otherwise, no. Probably the most influential foreigner in my country is Dr. D.L. Martin of St. Louis, a missionary of our church, who has spent 40 years in China, and is a very cultivated Chinese scholar and linguist. He stands high at court, where he has great influence.”

“What effect has the anti-Chinese legislation in this country had in China?”

“Little or none up to the present time. But if the agitation continues and still more stringent measures are passed, my government will undoubtably retaliate in kind, and that, you see, would not be so pleasant on this side. It is true—and this is a fact our government does not as yet appreciate—that the overwhelming majority of Chinese who come to this country are from the lowest classes and, therefore, there is some reason for the desire of your people to stop this immigration.”

Mr. Marshall belongs to the noble class of China and is a fine looking and extremely pleasant and companionable gentleman. He will be in St. Louis several days.

New York Tribune
July 26, 1890
Church of the Strangers, Mercer st., near 8th st.—Rev. Willard B. Thorp preaches at 10:30 a.m., and Rev. Dzau Tse Zeh, of China, at 7:45 p.m. All the seats are always free and ushers welcome strangers at the door.

The Evening Star
(Washington, DC)
July 28, 1890
A Chinese Minister of the Gospel.
The Church of Strangers, on Mercer street, New York, was crowded last night when the Rev. Dzau Tse Zeh of Su-Chow, China, preached. He is a native of China, but has been in this country many times during the last thirty years. The Rev. Dzau Tse Zeh has a good control of the English language. He has for some years been pastor of the largest Christian church in China at Su-Chow. It has a congregation of over three hundred. Christianity in China, he said, gains very slowly. The Rev. Dzau Tse Zeh has been studying medicine and will leave for China next week.

Methodist Quarterly Review
July 1892
Two Chinese boys were sent to the United States by Dr. Lambuth for education. They were in Dr. Kelley's care until they had learned enough English to be placed in other hands. They were finally left almost entirely to Mrs. Kelley, and while under her care were converted to God. One of these is a missionary to China, and is well known to English readers as Rev. C.K. Marshall.

The East of Asia Magazine
Volume 3, 1904
The late Rev. C.K. Marshall, of the Methodist Church; the Rev. H.N. Woo, of the American Church Mission; and the Rev. Cheong Heong, MA, of Melbourne, are names which stand for deep religious lives and valuable services in the ministry.

Buffalo Express
(New York)
June 8, 1905
Chinamen in the Civil War
Chinese Y.M.C.A. Worker says his Father fought under General Lee.
Another Wore the Blue
The Latter, H. N. Woo, still lives. Americans have wrong impression of China.

The father of S.K. Dzau, the native Chinese Y.M.C.A. worker who is in this town on a visit, fought in the American Civil War. He was with the Southern troops, serving under General Robert E. Lee. This surprising bit of information was conveyed to Secretary A. H. Whitford of the Buffalo Y.M.C.A. by Mr. Dzau in the course of a casual conversation yesterday.

“Why, I didn’t know there were any Chinese in the Civil War,” said Mr. Whitford.

“Yes, my father was in the war for a year,” said Mr. Dzau. “There was another Chinaman in the war. He was a friend of my father and he was on the Northern side. I guess they were the only Chinamen in that war. I often remember hearing my father speak about his horse. He was in the cavalry. He had a black horse with a white spot on it. He thought a great deal of it. My father’s name was T.Z. Dzau. His American name was C.K. Marshall. He was one of the first Chinamen brought over to this country to be educated by the missionaries. He came in 1857 or 1858. He was only fourteen years old. Dr. Walter Lambuth’s old home was in Georgia. My father lived near Macon, Ga., while he was studying. He made his home with some Southern family, as Dr. Lambuth had to return to China. After the war had been in progress a couple of years there was a call for reserves. The family with whom my father was staying had no one to send. The head of it asked him if he would go and my father said he would. He served in the Southern army for a year or so, being in one of the regiments under General Lee. He was in several fights, but was never shot. He had part of his hand crushed once, by an artillery wheel. My father remained in this country for fourteen years. Years afterward he made a second visit to attend Methodist conference in Nashville, Tenn. He died in China three years ago. My father’s friend who fought on the Northern side is still alive. He is the Reverend H.N. Woo. Although he is very old, he is still active in church work in Shanghai.”

Mr. Dzau will leave this city next Monday. He will go to Youngstown, O., for a few days. From there he will go to Cleveland, then to Chicago and then to Lake Geneva, Wis. He will sail for China from the Pacific Coast on July 29th.

Mr. Dzau, who speaks English as well as any educated American, has made many friends here. He is a very interesting talker, as various little clubs and church organizations have found out within the last week or so. He has gained much valuable information during his tour of the Y.M.C.A. organizations of this country and expects to put his information into practical use when he gets back to the Chinese Y.M.C.A. at Shanghai, of which he is the secretary.

“I find that wherever I go people have a misconception of our life in China,” he said yesterday. “I think this is due to the information brought back here by missionaries. Until very recently the missionaries had access only to the lowest classes in China. That's one reason, I think, that there is such an impression in America that we all live in little bamboo houses. We have many brick and stone dwellings in China; had them many, many years before the Western invasion. The people whom the missionaries used to reach were of the same type as those who live in log huts down South in this country. All nations have poor people as well as rich. You may enter many fine Chinese houses of either brick or stone and find them luxuriously furnished with paintings, carvings, beautiful furniture and all the other accessories that you find in American mansions. The bamboo huts are in the minority, for they are the homes of the very poorest. Some of the richer type of houses in our land cover many acres and are surrounded by beautiful gardens. By and by, the pictures of Chinese scenes that are sent over here will be changing and then American people will get a better idea of our life over there.”

Missionary Voice
July 1916
To the Memory of Their Father
The children of the late Dzau Tsz Zeh (Rev. C. K. Marshall), one of the most effective and best-beloved of our Chinese preachers, are building a church in Poh Lee Hong, near Soochow, as a memorial to their father. The cost is seven hundred dollars (Mexican), and the entire amount has been turned over to the Chinese presiding elder of the Soochow District for the completion of the structure.

The China Weekly Review
September 24, 1927
Soochow University Elects Chinese President

…School Had Beginning in 1849
As stated in the foregoing, Soochow University is the outgrowth of two small missionary schools started in Shanghai by the Rev. Charles Taylor, the first Missionary of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in 1849. Other schools which have been affiliated with the University or amalgamated with it through the years are the Buffington Institute, founded by the Rev. Tsao Tz Zeh and A. P. Parker, in 1871 and 1876, the Anglo-Chinese College, founded by Young J. Allen in 1882 and the Kung Kong School founded in Soochow by D. L. Anderson….


J.B. Gorman
Southern Methodist Publishing House, 1886
Mission Work—Anglo-Chinese College.
Suchow District.
...Dzau Tsz Zeh...

Roll of Membership.
Board of Missions.—...Dzau Tz-zeh

Minutes of the Fifty-eighth Session of the Louisiana Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South
Died on the Field
The Church and the Board have suffered a severe loss in the death of Dr. K. J. Yearwood in Mexico and Rev. C. K. Marshall in China. Unwavering in his devotion to duty, the former died at his post in the city of San Luis Potosi from the dreadful Typhus fever. Exposure in attending a poor Mexican with the disease, and an enfeebled body from exhaustive work night and day, made him an easy victim. Dr. Yearwood was a noble specimen of Christian manhood. Courageous, capable, devout and full of energy, he was in many respects an ideal missionary. The Mexicans loved him. We all mourn his loss; it is irretrievable.

Brother Marshall (Dzau Tse-zeh) was, in courage, devotion and energy, fully the equal of Yearwood. He worked his way as a cabin boy from New York to Shanghai on a sailing vessel, to get to preach the gospel to his people. The soul of honesty, he held many places of responsibility. His brethren trusted him, and he never betrayed their confidence. Possessed of rugged common sense, he was a very useful man in the mission, and, full of evangelistic zeal, he was ever ready to make proof of his ministry. He died suddenly of a stroke of apoplexy, but he was ready.

A Century of Protestant Missions in China (1807–1907)
Donald MacGillivray, Christian Literature Society for China
American Presbyterian Mission Press, 1907
The Soochow Hospital was built in 1883, and Dr. Lambuth remained in charge until 1885. In 1886, Dr. Park took charge, and since then, with the exception of two years—1893-1896—when it was under Dr. E.H. Hart, and three years—1900-1903—when it was under Dr. J.B. Fearn, assisted by Dr. John Trawick, it has been continually under his care. Dr. R.H. Campbell was connected with the hospital as an assistant to Dr. Park, for one year—1890-1891—Rev. C.K. Marshall (Dzau Tsz-zeh) helped Dr. Park for several years, and then for some time ran a successful medical work in Nanzing.

The Soochow Women's Hospital was built by Rev. C.K. Marshall under the direction of Dr. Mildred Philips. It was under her care for some time, then Mrs. J.P. Campbell had charge for a few years, then Dr. Anne Walter, and now for the last eight or ten years it has been under the management of Dr. M.H. Polk.

Holston Methodism
Richard Nye Price
Publishing House of the M.E. Church, South, 1908
Her house was an orphanage, where orphan children were cared for and trained for Christ. Two Chinese youths dwelt in her home for a long time and were successfully indoctrinated in the tenets of our holy religion, and one of them, whose English name was C.K. Marshall, was afterwards chaplain to the hospital at Soochow, China, established by the Board of Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.

Walter Russell Lambuth, Prophet and Pioneer
William Washington Pinson
Cokesbury Press, 1925
…There were two Chinese boys, playmates of Walter. One of them, Dzau Tsz Zeh, became afterwards an able preacher and one of the first presiding elders. The other one, Lambuth, also became a preacher….

Minutes of the Forty-first Session of the China Annual Conference Held at Soochow, China, November 10–15, 1926
...All of our schools of whatever name have been an expression of that conviction, and they all contributed their part to what is now our system of schools under the general name of Soochow University. The first beginning in Soochow was made fifty-five years ago, by Tsao Tz Zeh. That small school on the Street of Ten Fountains became fifty years ago a boarding school under the name of Tsun Yang Shu Yuan. In that year Mr. Tsao was joined by A. P. Parker, who devoted about twenty years to the development of this school, which three years later was moved to Tien Sz Tsang and became Buffington Institute. Here Dr. and Mrs. Parker devoted themselves to giving the elements of modern education to Chinese students in their own language....

My Father in China
James Cobb Burke
Farrar & Rinehart, 1942
[Chapter] 4
Thrown in the Ranks

Soon [Charles Jones Soong] and Burke convened another Vanderbilt session after the first day of conference. Soon told his story first.

He had started back for China in December, 1885, with Dr. W.  H. Park, a Southern Methodist medical missionary. Soon was memorably impressed on the train trip across the American continent. It was made at the time Chief Geronimo was out on the warpath with his rebellious Apaches. As the train sped through Arizona one day, the conductor came running into the car where Soon and Park sat. He was excited and pointed out on the plain to what he said was a party of Geronimo’s warriors, with the terrible chief probably among them. They were naked and painted and were riding single file, their bodies leaning well forward over the necks of their ponies.

Arriving in Shanghai in January, 1886, Soon went directly to Soochow with Dr. Park and shared the physician’s bachelor quarters there a few weeks. Then he moved in with a native preacher, Dzau Tsz-zeh, in order to have more language practice—learning the Shanghai vernacular was as much of a task to this South China youth as French is to an average American.

Dzau, better known by his Christian name, C. K. (Charlie) Marshall, was quite a character. He had gone to the United States as a small hoy with Dr. D. C. Kelley, one of the first Southern Methodist missionaries in Shanghai. When the War Between the States broke out and Dr. Kelley entered the Confederate forces as a colonel, Marshall went along as his personal attendant, a fact which threw him a great deal among the Negro attendants of other Confederate officers. Four years of this, together with the fourteen years he lived in all in the southern states, gave him a decided deep-South accent.

When Soon studied Shanghai Chinese with Marshall, the older man always used English for explanations—that being their only common language—and Marshall’s speech was an unending source of annoyance to his better-educated companion. The language lesson frequently developed to the point where Soon was correcting Marshall’s English rather than Marshall improving the other’s Shanghai dialect. Once, Marshall’s patience wore down:

“You, you upstart, you!” he cried. “Why you come pestering’ me wid dat Yankee talk. I bin talkin’ English ’fo you was ever born. Now go ’way and leave me ’lone.”

The Chiangs of China
Elmer Talmage Clark
Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, 1943
Charles Soong in China
Back in China, Soon added a g to his name and prepared to become a pastor. After living for a short period with Dr. Park at Soochow, he moved in with a native preacher to study the Shanghai dialect, which was so different from that of South China that he must all but master a new language. This preacher was Dzau Tsz-zeh, better and widely known as Charlie Marshall—an interesting character who spoke English with a heavy Southern accent from serving in the American Civil War as attendant to Confederate Colonel D. C. Kelley, an early missionary to China….

Methodism in the Mississippi Conference
William Burwell Jones
Hawkins Foundation, Mississippi Conference Historical Society, 1951
…A letter from J. W. Lambuth reports that Dsau Sier Whoa, whose English name was Charles K. Marshall, and who has been referred to as receiving his education in America, was stationed in Soochow. A letter came from Mrs. J. W. Lambuth concerning Woman’s Work in China. Young J. Allen and J. W. Lambuth had combined their schools into one at Soochow.

Chinese in the Post-Civil War South: A People Without History
Lucy M. Cohen
LSU Press, 1984
Marshall’s views may have surprised some of the delegates because in 1860 he had undertaken to educate Dsau Sier Whoa, one of two Chinese students whom the Reverend J. William Lambuth, Methodist Episcopal missionary to China from Mississippi, had brought to the Mississippi Conference. Lambuth hoped that these youth would ultimately “be called of God to preach the gospel to their own countrymen. Dsau (later spelled Sau-tse-zeh) was given the English surname C.K. Marshall, after his sponsor. In 1876 he was ordained as the first Chinese minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church South.

The Mississippi Methodists, 1799-1983: A Moral People “Born of Conviction”
Ray Holder
Maverick Prints, 1984
...William and Mary Lambuth personified this spirit of high resolve. In 1861 they came home on furlough, but the outbreak of hostilities cancelled their plans for an early return to the Orient. Yet after burying little Nellie, who died of scarlet fever, they felt compelled to venture as far as possible toward Mary’s New York home and await overseas passage.

Setting out from Madison County in a buggy and oxcart loaded with baggage and four children—Walter, baby Nora, and their Chinese foster sons, Dzau and John—they moved laboriously through the Union lines in biting winter winds. Less zealous adventurers would surely have awaited the advent of spring. More than once the lonely caravan was compelled to halt at some deserted shack for freezing days and nights on end. Back on the muddy byways the father and his boys often trudged for miles through muck so deep that even the oxen bogged down hopelessly. Sometimes it was necessary to unload the baggage and bear it on bleeding shoulders to higher ground. When spring finally dawned and soldiers of both armies at once began to cast calculating glances at the horse and buggy, William bartered them for hot meals in the chow line. Mary and Nora were then bedded down in the oxcart. After reaching the McClellan home they waited two years before passage to China could be arranged….

China Voyager: Gist Gee’s Life in Science
William Joseph Haas
M.E. Sharpe, 1996
Cao Zishi, a Chinese orphan who came to America in 1859 with Mrs. J.W. Lambuth, took the name of C.K. Marshall, a Mississippi preacher who helped him. When Mrs. Lambuth returned to China, “Charlie Marshall,” as Cao was known to Americans, became the charge of Dr. D.C. Kelley. Just as “Uncle Wiley” Howard served General States Rights Gist during the Civil War, Charlie was Colonel Kelley's manservant for four years. Through association with the black manservants of other Confederate officers, Charlie picked up their way of speaking English. Years later when a fellow Chinese, Charlie Soong, who had also been educated in the American South, tried to correct his English pronunciation, Charlie snapped: “Why you pestering me wid dat Yankee talk. I bin talkin’ English fo’ you was ever born.’ After the Civil War, Kelley’s mother took over, and Charlie received four years of education in the United States before working his way back to Shanghai, where he reported for work as a Southern Methodist preacher in 1869. J.W. Lambuth sent Cao to proselytize in Suzhou, and the following year Cao set up a day school there. In 1876 Southern Methodist A.P. Parker came to Suzhou and joined the work. By 1884 the school, now called the Buffington Institute after the prominent donor, was teaching elementary science and mathematics to students who would go on to become preachers, teachers, and doctors. In 1899 the Buffington Institute was merged into Allen’s Anglo-Chinese College in Shanghai.

Religions and Missionaries Around the Pacific, 1500–1900
Tanya Storch
Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006
In 1884, A.P. Parker, who had served in Suzhou since 1876, founded the Buffington College there, which was based on a day school for boys founded by a Chinese Methodist Zao Zishi (C.K. Marshall) in 1871.

Madame Chiang Kai-Shek: China’s Eternal First Lady
Laura Tyson Li
Grove Press, 2007
…Like Soong, Dzau Tsz-zeh was a preacher returned from America, and was best known by his Anglicized name, C. K. “Charlie” Marshall. After fourteen years in America, Marshall had acquired a pronounced Deep South accent.

When Soong studied with Marshall, they resorted to English for explanations, as it was their common language. Soong hailed from the South China island of Hainan, where the dialect was unintelligible to the Shanghainese. Marshall’s colorful trench English was a far cry from Soong’s gentlemanly version, and irritated Soong so much that what were supposed to be Chinese lessons often became debating matches over the finer points of the English language. Once, Marshall lost his temper: “You, you upstart, you!” he cried. “Why you come pestering’ me wid dat Yankee talk. I bin talking English ’fo you was ever born. Now go ’way and leave me ‘lone.” Under Marshall’s tutelage the Soong children learned the rudiments of Chinese characters and a smattering of the classics, but were spared the years of rigorous drills and rote learning to which students of traditional Chinese schools were typically subjected.

Salt and Light: More Lives of Faith That Shaped Modern China
Volume 2
Carol Lee Hamrin, Stacey Bieler, Editors
Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2010
Yan’s younger sister married Cao Zishi, the pastor of a church in Suzhou, who practiced self-taught medicine in the Southern Methodist Mission hospital. While studying in the United States, he had adopted the name Marshall and enlisted in the Confederate army. One of their sons, Cao Yunxiang, was a St. John’s graduate who earned an MBA from Harvard, served as consul general in London and then during his term as president of Tsinghua (1922–1928) expanded into it a comprehensive university.

Forrest’s Fighting Preacher: David Campbell Kelley of Tennessee
Michael R. Bradley
The History Press, 2011
…It appears that the young Chinese man Dzau Tsz-zeh, known by the English name of Charles K. Marshall, accompanied Kelley as a personal servant….

Marshall is profiled in the National Park Service book, Asians and Pacific Islanders and the Civil War.

Asian Americans: An Encyclopedia of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Political History
Xiaojian Zhao, Edward J.W. Park Ph.D.
ABC-CLIO, 2013
pages 176–178: Cao Zishi

East and West: Chinese Christian Families and Their Roles in Two Centuries of East-West Relations
Luo Yuan Xu
SDX Joint Publishing Company, 2013
text in Chinese
pages 87–88, 132–133 (family tree in English and Chinese)

(Updated July 3, 2015; next post: Joseph Pierce)

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